By George S. Everly Jr.
This new version emphasizes the original contribution of this longstanding textual content within the integration of mind/body relationships. the concept that of rigidity, as outlined and elaborated in bankruptcy 1, the first efferent organic mechanisms of the human tension reaction, as defined in bankruptcy 2, and the hyperlink from rigidity arousal to affliction, as outlined in bankruptcy three, basically continues to be an analogous. even though, updates in microanatomy, biochemistry and tomography are extra to those chapters. All different chapters should be up to date besides, as there was major alterations within the box over the last 8 years.
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Additional info for A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response
Whereas Na+ and Cl− predominate in the extraneural space, negatively charged protein anions dominate the internal milieu of the neuron along with potassium (K+). Thus, relatively speaking, the outside of the neuron possesses a positive charge and the inside, a negative charge. This resting status is called a polarized state (polarization). The relative intensity of the negatively charged intraneuronal constituency is about −70 mV and is called the resting electrical potential. When a neuron is in the act of transmitting a neural signal, the resting status of the neuron is altered.
Biogenic stressors, however, actually “cause” the elicitation of the stress response. Such stimuli bypass the higher cognitive appraisal mechanisms and work directly on affective and neurological triggering nuclei. Thus, by virtue of their biochemical properties, they directly initiate the stress response without the usual requisite cognitive–affective processing. Examples of such stimuli include the following: • • • • • • • • • Ginseng Ginkgo biloba Amphetamine Phenylpropanolamine Caffeine Theobromine Theophylline Nicotine Certain physical factors such as pain-evoking stimuli, extreme heat, and extreme cold • Guarana • Yohimbine As just mentioned, however, most stressors are not biogenic stressors.
6 portrays a reciprocity between cognitive and affective mechanisms, it should be noted that there exists substantial evidence supporting the cognitive primacy hypothesis (see Chap. 8); that is, cognition determines affect (felt emotion) and thus assumes a superordinate role in the process of restructuring human behavior patterns. Let us explore this important notion further. ” The science of physiology follows in kind. Hans Selye, also known as the father of modern endocrinology, has summarized over 50 years of research into human stress with the conclusion, “It is not what happens to you that matters, but how you take it,” Similarly, the noted neurophysiologist Ernest Gellhorn (Gellhorn & Loofbourrow, 1963) recognized the preeminent role of the prefrontal lobe cognitive processes in felt and expressed emotion in his research spanning the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.
A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response by George S. Everly Jr.