By M. W. Service (auth.)
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Extra info for A Guide to Medical Entomology
11 A pupa of an Anopheles mosquito. trumpets (figure 4· I I). The abdomen consists of ten segments but only eight are visible. Each segment has numerous short hairs and the last segment terminates in a pair of oval and flattened structures termed the paddles (figures 4· I I and 4· I2). In between the paddles is a small pouch-like projection containing the developing external genital processes of the adults; in female pupae this consists of the cerci and the pouch is quite small (figure 4· I 2b) but in male pupae the pouch is bigger because it contains the claspers of the male genitalia (figure 4· I 2a).
Although called gills they are not concerned with respiration but with osmoregulation. With the exception of Mansonia species (and a few other mosquitoes) mosquito larvae must come to the water surface to breathe. Atmospheric air is taken in through a pair of spiracles situated dorsally on the eighth abdominal segment. 24). Mansonia larvae possess a specialised siphon that is more or less conical and pointed at the tip, it is supplied with prehensile hairs and serrated cutting structures (figure 6.
Introduction to mosquitoes females may also feed on sugary substances to obtain energy for flight and dispersal, but only in a few species (the autogenous ones) is this type of food sufficient for egg development. Oviposition and biology of the eggs Depending on the species, female mosquitoes lay about 30-300 eggs at any one oviposition. 9a). In many mosquitoes, such as species of Anopheles, Culex and some Mansonia, the eggs are laid directly on the water surface. 9c and 6. I 3). Eggs of none of these mosquitoes can survive desiccation, consequently if they become dry they die.
A Guide to Medical Entomology by M. W. Service (auth.)