By John M. Levesque
Contents: creation; Supercomputer structure; Fortran; Vectorization of Fortran courses. Index. This publication explains intimately either the underlying structure of present day supercomputers and the style wherein a compiler maps Fortran code onto that structure. most crucial, the constructs fighting complete optimizations are defined, and particular concepts for restructuring a software are supplied
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Extra resources for A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers
Here it is again necessary to cause each CPU to work on different segments of the program data, but unlike the multiple-ALU SIMD machines—which work in lock step, each either performing or ignoring the same instruction seen by the other ALUs — the MIMD CPUs each perform a unique version of the instruction stream independent of the others. At critical points in the pro gram, the CPUs must be forced to synchronize with one another, either to properly pass information among themselves or to correctly share a common memory location.
This is similar to the "linked triad" on the CYBER 205 but generally more flexible in that any combination of operations — not just the multiply and add functions — can be chained. But in practice, multiply — add combinations are by far the most common in Fortran programming. 0 will be set into scalar registers before the loop begins. Then the following steps will take place: • Begin to fetch the vector of values A(l:64) to a vector register. • Begin to fetch the vector of values B(l:64) to another vector register (overlapped in time with the previous fetch).
We discussed earlier that it is the nature of cache to fetch more words than just the one requested, so strided data will not utilize the full memory transfer rate as can be done on systems without cache. 2 THE VECTOR PROCESSOR 41 Finally, on virtual memory systems, a large stride can cause a great many page faults within the system, with relatively little use of the data moved to and from slow auxiliary storage. Number of Vector Pipelines. On the Cray computers there is only one of each kind of functional unit in a CPU: one adder, one multiplier, and so forth.
A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers by John M. Levesque