By Mark J. Garrison
Asks how and why standardized exams became the ever present regular wherein academic fulfillment and intelligence are measured.
Read Online or Download A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing PDF
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Extra info for A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing
4 Standardized Tests as Markers of Social Value Whether one is a student in college to obtain their bachelor’s of science in psychology, a superintendent preparing a report to a school board, or a university admissions officer, data collected from educational and psychological tests are typically emphasized. The results of intelligence tests (ability or IQ) are said to measure student intelligence, achievement tests are presented as measurements of subject mastery and the basis for judging the relative performance of schools and school districts, and entrance exams are given as measurements of ability to succeed in college, to take only three common examples.
How and why did an existing or aspiring authority seek to unify all measures within its territory, or in new territories? • In what ways do the new standards embody the social values of the authority’s class or faction? These themes run together and ultimately must be considered as one dynamic. The aim is to delineate a method of consideration, a set of themes by which to explore the various aspects of educational assessment. This page intentionally left blank. 3 Academic Achievement and Ability as Forms of Vertical Classification If standards setting and control over standards are connected with ruling and governing, key aspects of any new standards would appear with the emergence of a new social order.
Many critics have thus designated psychometry as “measurement by fiat” (Cicourel 1964; also see Block and Dworkin 1976; Pawson, 1989). 3 If psychometry’s definition is accepted as the basis for practice, any rule-based assignment of numbers to phenomena could claim measurement. 4 In addition to the idealist assumptions underpinning psychometry’s definition of measurement is the field’s tendency to imbue data with properties of the testing procedure. One cannot assume a scale to be a property of that which is measured if that scale is a necessary consequence of the method of analysis (Cicourel 1964, 13).
A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing by Mark J. Garrison