By Giovanni Sartori
Used within the creation of a large variety of superb chemical substances and prescribed drugs, the Friedel-Crafts acylation response represents a man-made strategy of nice curiosity to natural chemists of academia and undefined. approximately forty years because the final significant treatise at the subject and reflecting the becoming emphasis on green technology, Advances in Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reactions: Catalytic and eco-friendly methods specializes in the best way to make this response extra economically and environmentally pleasant by utilizing green acylating stipulations, hence minimizing the formation of waste and lowering construction costs.
Divided into 4 elements, the ebook explores stoichiometric acylations, catalytic homogeneous acylations, catalytic heterogeneous acylations, and phenol acylations. it's established based on the position performed through the catalyst within the activation of reagents in addition to within the various modes of regioselectivity encountered within the acylation of arenes, fragrant ethers, and phenols.
Incorporating examples of all acid-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions, the textual content considers vintage Lewis and Brönsted acid kinds in addition to extra cutting edge and complicated multicomponent superacid catalysts. those variety from infrequent earth triflates or triflimides and their blend with ionic drinks to metal-promoted zeolites and zeotypes, clays, polymetal oxides, sulfated zirconia, heteropoly acids, and Nafion. The e-book emphasizes the foremost business purposes, delivering a serious evaluate of the variations, merits, and drawbacks of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.
Helping readers to higher comprehend the mechanism of the Friedel-Crafts acylation, the examples within the e-book substantiate the advance of more advantageous catalysts and extra selective strategies completed over the past few a long time, allowing to embark on a more secure and extra effective synthesis of fragrant ketones for the manufacture of a big selection of products.
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Extra info for Advances in Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reactions: Catalytic and Green Processes
2003. Convenient access to polysubstituted 1‑indanones by Sc(OTf)3‑catalyzed intramolecular Friedel–Crafts acylation of benzyl Meldrum’s acid derivatives. Org. Lett. 5: 4653–4656. 24. Sharma, A. , Subramani, A. , and Gorman, C. B. 2007. Efficient synthesis of halo indanones via chlorosulfonic acid mediated Friedel–Crafts cycliza‑ tion of aryl propionic acids and their use in alkylation reactions. Tetrahedron 63: 389–395. 25. Molloy, B. B. 1979. Trifluoromethyl substituted 1‑aminoindanes. S. Patent 4,132,737.
And Saint‑Jalmes, L. 2000. WO Patent 43,342. chapter 3 Catalytic homogeneous acylations As already underlined in the introduction to this book, catalytic homogeneous acylation reactions represent a remarkable improvement in the preparation of aro‑ matic ketones because, in the conventional Lewis‑acidpromoted reactions, formation of a stable complex between the ketone product and the catalyst implies that at least a stoichiometric amount of catalyst must be utilized. This drawback prompted a great number of studies aimed at setting up the experimental condi‑ tions to make catalytic Friedel–Crafts acylation reac‑ tions.
A. 2000. Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid catalyzed novel Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatics with methyl benzoate. Tetrahedron 56: 7199–7203. 15. Anderson, K. W. and Tepe, J. J. 2002. The first intermolecular Friedel–Crafts acylation with β‑lactams. Org. Lett. 4: 459–461. 16. Gors, H. , Horner, P. , and Jansons, V. 1991. Friedel–Crafts preparation of aromatic ketones with an inorganic salt controlling agent. S. Patent 5,068,447. 17. Lindley C. R. 1992. BF3 catalyzed acylation of aromatic compounds.
Advances in Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reactions: Catalytic and Green Processes by Giovanni Sartori